What is super computer

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What is super computer ? We all know about computer but do you know about supercomputer? So hear this Computer find the super version. And it is also true that a supercomputer is called a device that does better and faster processing than all the existing computers. If we talk about earlier times, then vacuum tubes and transistors were used in computers and computers used to be of big rooms size. But since the era of Integrated Circuit or microchips has come, now the size of computers has reduced to a great extent.

But in supercomputers, IC’s are used, microchips are used in large numbers, due to which there is not much difference in their size. That’s why we do not get to see supercomputers of small size.

But their processing speed is thousands of times faster than all other normal computers. Here today in this article we will know about what is called a super computer , how it works and what are its advantages as compared to the rest of the traditional computer. So let’s start without delay and get complete information about what is a super computer.

What is Supercomputer

Before knowing what a super computer is, if we know what a computer is, then it will be easier for us to understand it. Talking about a computer, it is a general-purpose machine that takes information ( data ) through the input process, stores them and then processes them as needed, and finally produces some kind of output. is.

On the other hand, if I talk about a supercomputer, then it is not only much faster and a very big computer: but it works completely differently, it typically uses parallel processing instead of serial processing like an ordinary one. is used in the computer. So instead of doing one thing at a time, it does multiple things at a time.

A supercomputer is a computer that currently performs in the highest operational rate. It is called Mahasanganak in Hindi. After all, where is a supercomputer used? Traditionally, supercomputers are mostly used for scientific and engineering applications so that they can handle large databases as well as perform large amounts of computational operations. Performance wise it works thousands of times faster and accurate than normal computers.

The performance of a supercomputer is measured in FLOPS, which means floating-point operations per second. Therefore, the more FLOPS the computer has, the more powerful it will be.

What is Serial and Parallel Processing?

Let us know what is the difference between Serial and Parallel Processing ? In an ordinary computer, only one work is done at a time, meaning that only after one task is over, another work is processed, such processing is called Serial Processing .

For example, a man is sitting in a grocery checkout of a retail mall and after picking up whatever item comes in the conveyor belt, he scans it with a scanner and passes it to the customer’s bag, doing this work in a distinct series of operations. That’s why it is called series processing. Here, no matter how quickly you keep things in the conveyor belt or fill things in your bag after scanning, but the speed of this process depends on the scanning speed or processing of that operator, and which is always one item at a time. Happens in. The best example of this is Turing machine .

Whereas a typical modern supercomputer works at a very high speed, for which it splits the problem into small pieces and works in one piece at a time. Therefore this process is called parallel processing.

If there are many friends in the grocery checkout, divide the items among themselves and checkout together in different counters and later collect all the things in one place, then this will get the work done very soon and will not take much time. Since the work was divided here, it did not take much time to do the processing. That’s why Parallel Processing is very fast as compared to Serial Processing.

The largest and powerful supercomputers use parallel processing. With this, they can do any process fast and in less time. When it comes to big and complex work such as weather forecasting, gene synthesis, mathematical modeling etc. then we really need computing power. In such a situation, parallel processing is more useful for the supercomputer. Generally speaking, there are mainly two parallel processing approaches: Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) and Massively parallel processing (MPP).

What are clusters?

If you want, you can make a supercomputer for which you have to put many processors in a giant box and instruct them to solve complex problems for which they can use parallel processing.

Or there is another way in which you have to buy multiple off-the-self PCs and put them in the same room, plus interconnect them with each other with the help of a fast local area network ( LAN ) So that they will work broadly in the same way. This type of supercomputer is called a cluster. Google uses these cluster supercomputers for web searches of its users in its data centers.

What is Grid?

A Grid is also a supercomputer that is very similar to a cluster (that is, a group of separate computers), but it has computers in different locations with each other via the Internet (or another computer network). are connected. This type of computing is also called distributed computing, in which the power of the computer is spread to multiple locations in exchange for a single place (centralized computing).

For example, the CERN Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, in which the data from the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) particle accelerator is assembled in one place, the grid supercomputer has been used in this.

The chances of more failure in the Grids Supercomputer are less, since all computers are connected with each other, so they get rid of the problems caused by parallel processing, where break up is a common thing.

Which Operating System is used in Supercomputers?

You may be surprised to know that to run supercomputers, only ordinary operating systems are used that we run our PCs, but we do know that more modern supercomputers actually have off-the-self comouters and workstations. consists of clusters.

Until a few years ago, Unix was used according to the operating system, whereas now Linux is used in its place. Which is open-source . Since supercomputers generally work on scientific problems, their application programs are written in traditional scientific programming languages ​​such as Fortran, or in more popular modern languages ​​such as C and C++ .

How powerful are supercomputers?

If we talk about normal computers, then MIPS (million instructions per second) is used to measure their computing speed. By which the fundamental programming commands like read, write, store etc. are managed by the processor. To compare two computers, their MIPS are compared.

But the way to rate supercomputers is slightly different. Since most scientific calculations are done in this, they are measured by floating point operations per second (FLOPS). Let us see the list made according to this FLOPS.

Unit FLOPS Example Decade
Hundred FLOPS 100 = 10 power 2 Eniac ~1940s
KFLOPS (kiloflops) 1 000 = 10 power3 IBM 704 ~1950s
MFLOPS (megaflops) 1 000 000 = 10 power 6 CDC 6600 ~1960s
GFLOPS (gigaflops ) 1 000 000 000 = 10 power 9 Cray-2 ~1980s
TFLOPS (teraflops) 1 000 000 000 000 = 10 power 12 ASCII Red ~1990s
PFLOPS (petaflops) 1 000 000 000 000 000 = 10 power 15 Jaguar ~2010s
EFLOPS (exaflops) 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 = 10 power 18 ????? ~2020s

When and who m


ade the world’s first supercomputer

If you study the history of computers, then you will find that no one individual has contributed to it, but many people have contributed from time to time. Somewhere then we got to see such amazing machines. But when it comes to the SuperComputer , a great deal of credit goes to Seymour Cray (1925–1996) . Because his contribution is highest in Supercomputer. You can also call him the father of super computer.

946: John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert constructed ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), at the University of Pennsylvania. It was the first general-purpose, electronic computer, it was about 25m (80 feet) long and weighed about 30 tons. It was built to handle military-scientific problems and was the first scientific supercomputer.

1953: IBM developed the first general-purpose mainframe computer, named the IBM 701 (also known as Defense Calculator), and about 20 machines were sold to different government and military agencies. This 701 was the first off-the-shelf supercomputer. After that Gene Amdahl, an engineer from IBM, later redesigned it and its upgraded version was named IBM 704, a machine that had a computing speed of about 5 KFLOPS (5000 FLOPS).

1956: IBM then developed the Stretch supercomputer for Los Alamos National Laboratory. It was the fastest supercomputer in the world for about 10 years.

1957: Seymour Cray co-founded the Control Data Corporation (CDC) this year and pioneered the creation of fast, transistorized, high-performance computers, including the CDC 1604 (announced 1958) and 6600 (released 1964), which seriously challenged done on the dominance of IBM over mainframe computing.

1972: Cray left Control Data and founded its own Cray Research and built high-end computers—the first true supercomputer. Their main idea was that how the connections inside the machine could be reduced so that the speed of the machines could be increased. Earlier Cray computers were often C-shaped, so that they could be kept apart from others.

1976: The first Cray-1 supercomputer was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Its speed then was around 160 MFLOPS .

1979: Cray then developed an even faster model, which had an eight-processor, 1.9 GFLOP Cray-2. In this, the wire connections were brought down from 120 cm to 41 cm (16 inches) as compared to earlier.

1983: Thinking Machines Corporation again manufactured the massively parallel connection machine, which used about 64,000 parallel processors .

1989: Seymour Cray then founded a new company Cray Computer, where he developed Cray-3 and Cray-4.

1990: Due to cuts in defense spending and the evolution of powerful RISC workstations, companies such as Silicon Graphics posed a serious threat to supercomputer makers.

1993: Fujitsu Numerical Wind Tunnel built the world’s fastest computer using 166 vector processors.

L994: Thinking Machines made case for Bankruptcy Protection File did.

1995: Cray Computer also started drowning due to financial difficulties, so he filed a case of bankruptcy protection. Together with this, Seymour Cray suddenly died in a road accident on October 5, 1996.

1996: Cray Research (Cray’s original company) was purchased by Silicon Graphics .

1997: ASCI Red, a supercomputer built from Pentium processors by Intel and Sandia National Laboratories, became the world’s first teraflop (TFLOP) supercomputer.

1997: IBM’s Deep Blue supercomputer defeated Gary Kasparov in the game of chess.

2008: The Jaguar supercomputer, built by Cray Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, became the world’s first petaflop (PFLOP) scientific supercomputer. Which was later overtaken by the machines of Japan and China.

2011–2013: Jaguar was extensively (and expensively) upgraded, and was named Titan, and later became the world’s fastest supercomputer, which was later downgraded by the Chinese machine Tianhe-2.

2014: Mont-Blanc, a European consortium, announced that they are building an exaflop (1018 FLOP) supercomputer with energy efficient smartphone and tablet processors.

2017: Chinese scientists announced that they are making a prototype of an exaflop supercomputer, which is based on Tianhe-2.

2018: China is at the forefront of the race of fastest supercomputers at present, Sunway TaihuLight made by them is currently the fastest running supercomputer in the whole world.

Which is the Top 5 Fastest Supercomputers in the World?

There is a lot of competition about computing power in all countries, that who can be at the forefront, but the top position is the same. Peak performance in supercomputing is always changing. Even in the definition of supercomputer it is written that it is such a machine “which always works in its highest operational rate.”

Due to the competition, it makes supercomputing more interesting, so that scientists and engineers always continue their research at better and better computational speed. So let’s know which are the top 5 supercomputers in the world.

1. Sunway TaihuLight (China)
2. Tianhe-2 (China)
3. Piz Daint (Switzerland)
4. Gyoukou (Japan)
5. Titan (United States)

name of super computer of india

Do you know when India’s first supercomputer Param 8000 was launched? It was started in India in 1991. Our country also has some supercomputers in India. Let us know the name of super computer of India.

  1. SahasraT (Cray XC40)
  2. Aaditya (IBM/Lenovo System)
  3. TIFR Color Boson
  4. IIT Delhi HPC
  5. Param Yuva 2

Conclusion

I hope that I have given you complete information about what is a supercomputer and I hope you people have understood about what is a supercomputer . If you have any doubts about this article or you want that there should be some improvement in it, then you can write low comments for this.

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