Concept, types, examples, evolution, characteristics
With technology, tools were invented to improve the quality of life.
What is technology?
Technology is the set of scientific notions and knowledge that human beings use to achieve a precise objective , which can be the solution of a specific problem of the individual or the satisfaction of any of their needs.
It is a broad concept that encompasses a wide variety of aspects and disciplines within electronics , art or medicine. For example: The creation of robots for the automation of repetitive tasks or animal cloning .
It can serve you: Nanotechnology
Types of technologies
Technology can be classified in different ways depending on the characteristics that are taken into account.
According to the type of product :
Hard technologies. They use elements of the hard sciences such as engineering, mechanics, mathematics , physics , chemistry . The product obtained is visible and tangible, that is, it is the production of material goods. For example: the development of a mobile device.
Soft technologies. They are based on the humanistic or soft sciences, such as sociology , psychology , economics . In general, they are used to improve processes and achieve greater efficiency in institutions or companies . The product obtained is neither visible nor tangible, since it consists of the development of services , strategies , theories. For example: the development of software .
According to the American sociologist James David Thompson:
Flexible technologies. They are used in different areas, that is, they have several uses. For example: the microchip that is used in telephones and computers .
Fixed technologies. They are used for the production of a certain product, or in a certain area. They are technologies designed and produced for a single purpose. For example: rat poison is used only for the elimination of said animal.
According to the level of innovation :
State-of-the-art technologies. Also called “high technologies” or “latest technology”, they are more advanced technologies, available in a certain place and time.
Appropriate technologies. They are technologies that are designed taking into account the environmental , social and economic impact in a given society .
According to your application:
Operating technologies. They are obtained after a long period of time of study, observation and experience .
Computer Technologies. They are developed by the manufacturers of a certain product.
Product technologies. They combine tools and knowledge to produce a certain product.
Origin and evolution of technology
technology fire history prehistory
The discovery of the use of fire was one of the first technological advances.
Instinctively, from the beginning of history , people sought to develop technology ( techniques to improve their quality of life ). The discoveries that man has made over the years have been shaping the world as it is known today, therefore, the technology has existed since the beginning of the species, although it has not been called as such until the eighteenth century .
Formally speaking, technology has its origin when technique (initially empirical) began to link with science and in this way the production methods are structured.
Throughout the different periods of humanity there have been discoveries that modified the way in which the human being relates to himself and to the environment that surrounds him:
Stone Age ( Paleolithic , Mesolithic and Neolithic). It was characterized by the use of stone for the manufacture of utensils and the development of agriculture with rudimentary tools for land management. The discovery of fire was one of the first technologies that brought remarkable benefits to humans.
Metal Age . It was characterized by the development of agriculture , animal domestication and the transition from nomadism to sedentarism. The smelting of copper , bronze and iron was developed. The Egyptian civilization is credited with the discovery of papyrus and pottery; the Romans developed sophisticated agriculture, improved the technology of iron work, and developed civil and military engineering; Chinese civilization is credited with the discovery of paper, the iron plow, the compass, the propeller, the crossbow, and gunpowder .
Middle Ages . The emergence of themodern printing press was one of the most important milestones within this period.
Industrial Revolution . It was a period of social, economic, technological and cultural transformations characterized by the development of anurban and industrialized economy . One of the most prominent inventions of this time was the steam engine . During the 19th century, the telegraph, the light bulb, the telephone, and the automobile emerged.
Twentieth century. There was a great technological development with discoveries such as the airplane, radio, television , the computer , as well as important advances in nuclear technology, technology applied to medicine and space technology. Within this century there was the Information and Telecommunication Revolution or the Information Age (1985-2000).
XXI century. Technological progress (also called the scientific-technological revolution or intelligence revolution) evolved rapidly. Technology and communications transform industry . New technologies are those that emerge after the Second World War . Its rapid growth and insertion in society brought important consequences. The risk is fundamentally given that the human being is able to control and dominate them.
Importance of technology
Technology has allowed us to access greater territories in the world.
The discoveries and the appearance of new tools produced through technology were key to human and societal development . Technology brings great discoveries that make it possible to improve production, save time, increase the quality of life , facilitate life in society, shorten distances, get to know the planet .
Technology emerged as a need for man to meet individual and collective desires using scientific knowledge and techniques to solve problems and satisfy their needs. It has allowed the human being to know in depth the environment that surrounds him and to modify it to achieve his ends; Through the centuries, man invented and modified tools to improve his lifestyle.
Technology has brought discoveries in the field of medicine, advances in access to information, in communication and transportation, in the simplification of tasks.
It is present in all areas of personal life and in society , such as work, education , medicine, communication.
It allows the manufacture of new objects : through it, the human being modifies the environment that surrounds him.
It is responsible for most of man’s discoveries .
If it is well used it improves the quality of life of the human being, if it is used badly it can cause serious damage to individuals and society.
It is subject to change (technological changes occur discontinuously).
Its developments involve cultural , labor and social changes .
Uneven technological development can generate social and economic gaps within a community or between regions or nations .
Examples of technologies
technology example 3d printer
3D printers create three-dimensional objects by overlaying layers of materials.
Robotics . It uses tools and knowledge from various disciplines (electronic engineering, electrical engineering, computer science ) for the design and manufacture of robots. It is expected that these robots can perform automated tasks and jobs that are routine and tedious for humans or lower production costs in industries.
Cryptocurrencies. They are a type of digital currency that uses a distributed ledger technology (allows you to record and synchronize transactions between multiple users in different locations).
3d print. It is a type of addition printing that efficiently creates unique parts and complex geometries on a wide variety of materials. Through 3D printing, a three-dimensional object is created by superimposing layers of materials, and it is used in many industries for different uses.
Artificial intelligence. It involves the creation of machines that mimic the cognitive functions of human beings. This technology is used in various disciplines such as economics, medicine, transportation, video game software, systems control, handwriting recognition, speech recognition, and pattern recognition in online assistants.
Autonomous vehicles. Technology is used to create driverless cars that are programmed to mimic human driving and control capabilities. This type of vehicle perceives the environment through laser systems, radars, computerized vision. There are several programs that are testing this new technology to see if it can be used extensively.
Biotechnology. It is the discipline that uses technology to create products from biological systems and living organisms . Biotechnology has been responsible for the creation of vaccines and antibodies and is used in medicine, agriculture, industry and environmental care .
Relationship between science and technology
Technology uses the knowledge of science to develop goods or services.
The concept of technology is often confused with that of science. On the one hand, science is an ordered set of knowledge that is obtained through observation and experimentation .
On the contrary, technology takes the knowledge and techniques from the different sciences and uses them to develop tangible and intangible goods or services that contribute to human development .
While science allows knowing certain phenomena, technology deals with combining and modifying them efficiently to solve a problem or satisfy a need. Therefore, technology depends entirely on the existence of science. Scientific advances also imply new opportunities for technological development.
In the last decades, the concept I + D + I (Research, development and innovation) gained notoriety, which combines scientific and technological study.
Continue with: Exact Sciences
“History of technology” in Science Direct .
“The types of technology” at the International University of Valencia .
“Technology in the Ancient World” in Encyclopedia Britannica .
“The 50 greatest breathroughs since the wheel” in The Atlantic .
“Distributed registry technologies” at the Bankinter Innovation Foundation .